BIO FARMING > CLASSICAL MUSIC to improve growth, quality & quantity
How Music can improve your Harvest
Listening to some of your favorite music tends to help you be more productive during your work day.
Music has the same effect on Plants and Animals.
The right sounds can produce tremendous improvements in growth, and the wrong sounds can do just the opposite. Plants are more aware of their surroundings than we think, probably much more so than us!
Here, I just want to give you a taste of what some researchers have observed with respect to plants and music, and sound and plants. This has direct implications for organic gardening.
In 1962, Dr. T. C. Singh, head of the Botany Department at India's Annamalia University, experimented with the effect of musical sounds on the growth rate of plants. He found that balsam plants grew at a rate that accelerated by 20% in height and 72% in biomass when exposed to music. He initially experimented with classical music.
Dr. T. C. Singh also discovered that seeds that were exposed to music and later germinated produced plants that had more leaves, were of greater size, and had other improved characteristics. It practically changed the plant's genetic chromosomes !
How could music affect plant growth if plants don't have ears ?
To explain how it may work, let us look at how we humans receive and hear sound.
Sound is transmitted in the form of waves that travel through a medium, such as air or water. The waves cause the particles in this medium to vibrate. When you switch on your radio, the sound waves create vibrations in the air that cause your ear drum to vibrate. This pressure energy is converted into electrical energy for the brain to translate into what you understand as musical sounds.
In a similar manner, the pressure from sound waves create vibrations that could be picked up by plants. Plants would not "hear" the music, they would feel the vibrations of the sound wave.
Protoplasm, the translucent living matter of which all animals and plant cells are composed, is in a state of perpetual movement. The vibrations picked up by the plant might speed up the protoplasmic movement in the cells. This stimulation then could affect the system and improve performance, such as the manufacture of nutrients that develop a stronger and better plant.
Different forms of music have different sound wave frequencies and varying degrees of pressure and vibration. Louder music, like rock, features greater pressure, which some people think might have a detrimental effect on plants. Imagine the effect of strong wind on a plant compared to a mild breeze.
Source : https://www.smilinggardener.com/plants/music-and-plants/
Music And Plants – How To Use Music To Boost Plant Growth
Plants physically leaned 15 to 20 degrees towards classical and jazz music
The classic book The Secret Life of Plants by Peter Tompkins and Christopher Bird documents many scientific, statistically-significant studies done on the fascinating relationship between sound and music and plants. Download the book (PDF, 12.6 MB, 345 pages) >> HERE << (right click, Save Link As...)
Download the Mozart Effect by Don Campbell (PDF, 947 kb, 361 pages) >> HERE << (right click, Save Link As...)
Download The Best Of Mozart music (1997) (FLAC) (Zip, 310 MB, 14 files) >> HERE << (right click, Save Link As...)
Download The Best Of Mozart music (1997) (MP3 320kbps) (Zip, 167 MB, 14 files) >> HERE << (right click, Save Link As...)
Music And Plants studies
Dorothy Retallack did many controlled greenhouse experiments with different genres of music and plants.
She found after 2 weeks, plants physically leaned 15 to 20 degrees towards a radio playing classical and jazz music, while they scramble to grow away from rock music and become sick. Marigolds “listening” to rock music died within 2 weeks, whereas those in the classical music room 6 feet away were flowering.
But by far the most noticeable positive reactions were to classical Indian music for plants. A researcher in India also had success with Indian music…
T.C. Singh, head of the department of botany at Annamalai University, did many experiments with Indian plants and music, with amazing results.
Eventually, he stimulated rice harvests that were from 25-60% higher than average, and nearly 50% higher for peanuts and tobacco. Experiments were done on many other plants and had “proven beyond any shadow of doubt that harmonic sound waves affect the growth, flowering, fruiting, and seed-yields of plants”.
George Smith, skeptical botanist and agricultural researcher, planted corn and soybeans in separate greenhouses under controlled conditions and began to experiment with music and plants.
In one greenhouse, he played George Gershwin’s “Rhapsody in Blue” 24 hours a day, producing thicker, greener plants that weighed 40% more for corn and 24% more for soy. He went on to produce amazing corn harvests using ear-splitting continuous notes at high and low pitches.
Sound And Plants studies
Two researchers at the University of Ottawa did trials with high-frequency vibrations in wheat. Plants responded best to a frequency of 5000 cycles a second. They were baffled and could not explain why audible sound had nearly doubled wheat harvests.
Peter Belton, researcher for Canada’s Department of Agriculture, controlled the European corn-borer moth by broadcasting ultrasonic waves. 50% of the corn was damaged in the control plot, and only 5% in the plot with sound. The sound plot also had 60% fewer larvae and was 3” taller on average.
George Milstein found that a continuous low hum at 3000 cycles per second accelerated the growth of most of his plants and even caused some of them to bloom six full months ahead of their normal schedule. On the other hand, he was quite adamant that music for plants couldn’t possibly have an effect, as they “can’t hear.”
Source : https://abcnews.go.com/GMA/story?id=1165678
Farmer Says Feeding Grapes Classical Music Makes for Better Wine
By ABC News
Sept. 28, 2005
In one corner of Tuscany, baked golden hills give way to the lush green of a flourishing vineyard where men with silver hair meander between the rows of full purple grapes, and Mozart and Tchaikovsky fill the warm air. This is not a scene out of a romantic Hollywood film. This is fertilizer for grapes on Carlo Cignozzi's Al Paradiso di Frassina vineyard.
"I don't really know why it works, but I always had an idea it would," Cignozzi told The Times of London.
Cignozzi started playing classical music through loudspeakers around his vineyards four years ago, and is convinced the melodies have made his grapes healthier and stronger. He said the music scares off animals who feed on young grapevines, as well as parasites, molds and bacteria.
"It's fantastic because the bunches near the music grow, they can grow faster," Cignozzi said.
Cignozzi's grapes mature within 10 to 14 days, while most grapes average around 20 days to mature. The faster the grapes grow, the higher the alcohol content.
The results on his vineyard have been so impressive that Florence University has launched a research project in an attempt to scientifically validate them. As part of the research, 10 vines on Cignozzi's land will be exposed to music all year and 10 will be grown in silence. Researchers will also examine the response of the vines to different sound frequencies.
Cignozzi bought the vineyard in the late 1990s and started playing music when he came across Chinese and Korean studies on the effects of music on plants.
"They thought we were a bit odd," Diane Grande, Cignozzi's wife, said of local residents.
But no matter what the critics or scientists say, Cignozzi says he will continue to feed his vines classical music.
Source : https://dairygood.org/content/2013/rock-on-classical-music-a-favorite-among-dairy-cows
Ever find that listening to some of your favorite jams tends to help you be more productive during your work day?
Turns out, you are not the only one who can get into a steady groove listening to your favorite playlist. Some dairy cows also tend to be more productive – by producing more milk when stimulated by the sounds of certain types of music, according to research.
Some dairy farmers have long observed that music impacts the mood, and in turn the milk production, of their herd. A few years ago, researchers found that many cows tend to produce more milk when certain types of music is played – particularly classical music from the likes of Beethoven of Mozart. According to the findings, the music keeps the cows calm by drowning out background noise from the farm.
While playing music for their cows isn’t a typical practice by many, some farmers have not taken these results lightly, installing high-priced music systems in the barn to keep their cows soothed and relaxed.
Source : https://www.upi.com/Science_News/2014/02/18/Music-helps-cows-relax-produce-more-milk/1111392759663/
Music helps cows relax, produce more milk
By Brooks Hays
Feb. 18, 2014
Scientists have known for years that the milk production of cows goes up when the animals listen to music. Farmers have known this too. But deciding exactly what songs to play remains an imprecise science.
“I am not sure why there is not more research on the cow-music-milk production relationship,” says Dr. Leanne Alworth recently told Modern Farmer. Alworth is the assistant director of University Research Animal Resources at the University of Georgia’s School of Veterinary Medicine. “Perhaps because most researchers interested in animal welfare are not looking at production parameters specifically?”
But Alworth says slower and more soothing rhythms are likely to work best. At least that's what a 2001 study by two psychologists at the University of Leicester suggested. That study showed that cows that listened to song like "Everybody Hurts" by REM and Simon & Garfunkel’s "Bridge Over Troubled Water" produced three percent more milk than a control group. Cows that listened to more sonically abrasive tunes like rap and techno songs showed no increase in milk production.
When a cow is stressed, the release of oxytocin is slowed -- the hormone is central to the milking process. The insides of an industrial dairy facility can be hectic and loud, a potentially stressful situation for a cow. So it makes sense that music might distract the cows and help them stay calm.
The magazine Modern Farmer has offered some musical inspiration for farmers looking to maximize their cows' milk output. They suggests songs like "Perfect Day," by Lou Reed for the more modern rock-n-roll approach, and scores like "Concerto for Flute and Harp in D Major" by Mozart for the more classically-inclined cattle.
[Modern Farmer] [BBC News]
Source : http://mentalfloss.com/article/70539/7-scientific-studies-about-how-animals-react-music
7 Scientific Studies About How Animals React to Music
BY Meredith Danko
November 4, 2015
Music is pretty universally enjoyed ... when it comes to people. Animals, on the other hand, have diverse reactions to tunes. For every Ronan the head-bopping sea lion, there are plenty of creatures that can't keep the beat. Here are seven scientific discoveries about how some animals react to music, either created by humans or themselves.
1. DOGS IN KENNELS MIGHT BE LESS STRESSED WHILE LISTENING TO CLASSICAL MUSIC.
In a 2012 study [PDF] published in The Journal of Veterinary Behavior, researchers from Colorado State University monitored the behavior of 117 kenneled dogs, including their activity levels, vocalization, and body shaking. The researchers played a few different types of music to the dogs, including classical, heavy metal, and an altered type of classical music. They also observed the dogs' behavior when no music was playing at all. They found that the dogs slept the most while listening to all kinds of classical music, indicating that it helped them relax. The dogs had the opposite reaction to the metal music, which provoked increased body shaking—a sign of nervousness.
The researchers noted the similarities between dogs and people when it comes to classical music. “These results are consistent with human studies, which have suggested that music can reduce agitation, promote sleep, improve mood, and lower stress and anxiety,” they wrote. They also point out that heavy metal music has anxiety-inducing effects on some people as well.
2. CATS DON'T CARE ABOUT HUMAN MUSIC, BUT SCIENTISTS ARE ABLE TO CREATE MUSIC THAT THEY DO ENJOY.
Cats either don't care for, or are pretty indifferent to, human music. Thankfully, Charles Snowdon, a psychologist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, David Teie, a composer at the University of Maryland, and Megan Savage, formerly of the University of Wisconsin-Madison and now a Ph.D. student at SUNY-Binghamton, have developed music that contains frequencies and tempos similar to the ones cats use to communicate. We tested some of the songs on one of our editor's cats earlier this year; you can listen to samples of the songs here.
Snowdon and Savage went to 47 households with cats and played them music, including two classical songs and two songs developed for felines. When the researchers played the latter, the cat was more likely to move towards the speaker, or even rub up against it, according to their study, which was published in the journal Applied Animal Behavior Science earlier this year. Interestingly, young and old cats reacted to the cat songs the most positively. Middle-aged cats showed more indifference.
3. IT'S ALSO POSSIBLE TO MAKE MONKEY MUSIC.
Cats weren't the first animals Snowdon, Savage, and Teie made species-specific music for. In 2009, they developed songs that mirrored the pitch of monkey calls. For their study, which was published in the journal Biology Letters, the scientists played the music for tamarin monkeys. Songs that were inspired by the calming calls the animals make caused the monkeys to relax; they even ate more while listening to those songs. But when the researchers played music that contained sounds similar to ones the monkeys make when they’re expressing fear, the monkeys became agitated. (You can listen to the songs here.) The monkeys were mostly indifferent to human music—their behavior didn't noticeably change when they were listening to Nine Inch Nails, Tool, or Samuel Barber. But, interestingly, when they heard “Of Wolf and Man” by Metallica, they grew calmer.
4. COWS PRODUCE MORE MILK WHEN THEY'RE LISTENING TO RELAXING MUSIC.
In 2001, researchers at the University of Leicester played various songs to 1000-strong herds of Friesian dairy cows. Over a period of nine weeks, the researchers alternated between fast music, slow music, and silence for 12 hours each day. They found that calming music—like R.E.M.'s "Everybody Hurts," Simon & Garfunkel's "Bridge Over Troubled Water," and Beethoven's "Pastoral Symphony"—actually resulted in the cows producing 3 percent more milk—0.73 liters per cow per day. One of the lead researchers, Dr. Adrian North, told the BBC, “Calming music can improve milk yield, probably because it reduces stress.” The cows were not so into “Space Cowboy” by Jamiroquai or “Size of a Cow” by Wonderstuff.
5. ELEPHANTS MIGHT BE BETTER AT PLAYING MUSIC THAN HUMANS ARE.
Elephants are already known for their ability to paint with their trunks, but it turns out that they might be musically inclined as well. (Just check out this viral video of elephants swaying their trunks to violin music!) In northern Thailand, a conservationist named Richard Lair put together the Thai Elephant Orchestra, in which 16 elephants play specially developed instruments like steel drums and even harmonicas. Neuroscientists who have studied the music of the Thai Elephant Orchestra have determined that the animals are able to keep a very stable tempo on a large drum—even more stable than a human can.
6. BIRD BRAINS REACT TO MUSIC IN A MANNER SIMILAR TO HUMAN BRAINS.
Birds are probably the most well-known singers of the animal kingdom. A few years ago, researchers at Emory University set out to learn whether birds are actually making music, like humans do. To find out, they examined the brains of both male and female white-tailed sparrows as they listened to the sounds of male birds.
When humans listen to music, our amygdalae often light up in response. It turned out that female white-tailed sparrows had similar brain responses to the bird sounds. The part of their brain that’s similar to the amygdala lit up while listening to the male’s song. The male birds, on the other hand, had brain reactions similar to when humans listen to music they don’t like. Sarah Earp, the study's lead researcher, explained, “We found that the same neural reward system is activated in female birds in the breeding state that are listening to male birdsong, and in people listening to music that they like.”
7. FISH KNOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COMPOSERS.
In 2013, a study was published in the journal Behavioral Processes that revealed that goldfish could be trained to distinguish between composers. Researchers at Keio University used pieces of music by two composers in the study: Igor Stravinsky and Johann Sebastian Bach. The goal was to train the goldfish to gnaw on a ball filled with food when the correct composer’s music was playing. One group of fish got Stravinsky and a separate group got Bach. When the fish heard music, they went to gnaw on the ball and were rewarded with food. Once the fish were correlating a composer’s music with the reward, the researchers tried playing the other composer’s music. The goldfish didn’t gnaw on the ball at that point, indicating that they knew enough about the pitch and timbre of their composer to not associate the novel music with food.
Source : http://www.mariasfarmcountrykitchen.com/pigs-prefer-music-for-optimal-growth/
Pigs Prefer Music For Optimal Growth
October 18, 2010
Here is just the kind of strange-but-true story I love to read in my local paper in the morning over a cup of coffee…In Nyirangarama, Rwanda, a pig farmer has found that playing different types of music to his pigs has increased their growth and fertility…and their flavor.
Gerard Sina came up with the idea after hearing about a Belgian experiment, and decided to try it on his pigs. In addition to feeding them organically and sustainably with food scraps from his truck stop restaurant and fruit juice processing plant, he plays them music. For post-meal digestion, he plays relaxing music like Celine Dion or Bob Marley. To get them moving he plays American rap. And for procreation, he will play “strong music, so that the males can be strong and virile,” Sina says.
You can laugh (or you can dance), but according to Sina, he has a sample that has not listened to any music at all (poor piggies). And those pigs are half the size of the music-listeners, the quality of their meat is poor, and they have fewer offspring.
In Rwanda, a pig can mean the difference between life and death for a family. 50% of the children in Rwanda are chronically malnourished. And because of his success, Sina’s been able to give away 150 piglets a year to families in his area.
This kind of creative thinking is what we need in American agriculture today: Music, rather than antibiotics! It costs a lot less, doesn’t make our kids and elderly resistant to antibiotics or more prone to infection, and seems like it works just as well, if not better.
Sounds good to me!
Useful stuff :
Download : The Holistic Gardening Handbook Condensed by Phil Nauta (PDF, 2.8 MB, 100 pages) >> HERE << (right click, Save Link As...)
28 pieces of Classical Music for Farming : http://netnebraska.org/basic-page/radio/28-pieces-classical-music-farming
26 pieces of Classical Music for Gardening : http://netnebraska.org/basic-page/radio/26-pieces-classical-music-gardening
Free classical musics : http://www.orangefreesounds.com/category/music/classical-music/
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